A group of bacterial diseases giving a range of signs, all cause death, often sudden.
Vaccine: Heptavac P/ Covexin 8 (both also cover Pasteurella pneumonia)
Dose: Lambs from 3wks of age 2 doses given wks apart
Ewes Booster annually
Causes: Abortion in last few weeks of pregnancy, small weak lambs often short lived.
Commonly see mismatched twins (one big, one very small).
Responsible for abortion storms in flocks previously without abortion problems.
HIGHLY INFECTIOUS through birthing discharges.
Any female lambs that survive will be carriers.
Abortions/weak lambs occur the lambing season AFTER initial infection.
EAE WILL CAUSE ABORTION IN HUMANS, PREGNANT WOMEN SHOULD BE KEPT AWAY FROM LAMBING SHEEP
Vaccine: Enzovax or CEVAC
Dose: ALL breeding ewes/ewe lambs from 5mts of age a MINIMUM of 4 weeks BEFORE TUPPING, booster only required after 3-4 yrs from initial dose.
Bacterial infection beginning at bottom of hoof under-runs hoof wall, wet and foul smell associated, if left untreated entire shell of hoof maybe shed or maggoting can occur.
Vaccine: Footvax, recommended for flocks where it is a problem year on year.
Dose: Primary course of 2 doses 6 weeks apart, then annually dose at turn-out.
DO NOT GIVE IN LAST 6 WEEKS OF PREGNANCY, in particularly bad flocks can booster every 4-5mts
Highly infectious viral skin disease, scabby ulcerated lesions on lips and around teats often reduces/prevents sucking, CAN AFFECT HUMANS.
Scabivax: Ewes 7-8wks before lambing, yearly booster required
Lambs anytime from birth
*Given by scratch on the skin using special applicator
Bacterial infection causing rapid severe pneumonia. Often won’t stand with distressed breathing, coughing and nasal discharge, most common in young stock.
Vaccine: Heptavac P/ Covexin 8 (both also cover clostridial disease)
Initially 2 doses given 4-6wks apart, then yearly boosters 4-6wks before lambing. Lambs may be vaccinated from 3 wks.
Parasite causing abortions in sheep, sheep will usually carry lamb until last few weeks of pregnancy though may also see increase in barren ewes. Parasite carried and spread by SICK/PREGNANT cats.
*Neutered cats are safe and will deter wild cats which are more likely to shed the parasite.
TOXOPLASMOSIS WILL CAUSE ABORTION IN HUMANS, PREGNANT WOMEN SHOULD KEEP AWAY FROM CATS & LAMBING SHEEP
Dose: ALL breeding ewes/ewe lambs from 5mts of age a MINIMUM of 4 weeks BEFORE TUPPING, booster required 2 yrs after initial dose.
Disease: Rapid onset fever, muscle swelling & often sudden death.
Caused by clostridial bacteria from soil entering a wound, this can be as small as a thorn stab.
Vaccine: Bravoxin 10 (these vaccines also cover other clostridial diseases such as tetanus and blacks disease but NOT BOTULISM)
Dose: Initially give 2 doses 6wks apart (can be given from 3wks+)
Single booster dose required yearly, if given 6weeks before calving will give some cover to newborn calves via colostrum.
Disease: Paralysis beginning with tongue then muscles can be very rapid or slow onset depending on how much toxin ingested. Cow will be seen drooling (tongue paralysis) off food, then unable to stand, lift head – DEATH results in almost all cases, often sudden death.
Vaccine: Is imported from S.Africa, this requires an import licence for each farm, each licence costs £30 and can be arranged by the practice. You can only buy doses equal to the number of animals registered in your herd.
Dose: Initially give two doses 4wks apart, under-skin, single booster then required annually.
Safe in pregnancy tho wise to avoid ANY unnecessary handling in final 2 wks of pregnancy.
Disease: Virus affects the lungs, guts and reproductive tract.
• Infertility, early abortions(repeat breeders), extended calving - conception
• Ill thrift in groups of calves, increased calf death
• Calves born weak/under developed/deformed/calving difficulties
• Reduced effectiveness of vaccines used in herd eg IBR.
PI animals = Persistently Infected, these animals were infected with BVD virus during gestation in the mothers womb before their immune system was established. When they are born they CARRY AND SPREAD the virus throughout their lives, their body considers the virus part of itself so WILL NEVER TRY TO GET RID OF THE VIRUS BY MAKING ANTIBODIES!
HOW TO SCREEN YOUR HERD FOR PI ANIMALS
• BVD virus and BVD antibody can be found in milk or blood.
• Dairy herd bulk milk should be negative for antibody if you have an uninfected, unvaccinated herd.
• If a bulk milk screen comes back positive for antibody in an unvaccinated dairy herd it is advisable to screen all animals in herd by a pooled blood test to identify PI animals.
• When testing large numbers of animals we take individual blood samples which are then pooled in groups of 10-20 and tested for virus, if any group is positive, the individual samples for that particular group can then be tested and the infected animal identified.
Vaccine: Bovilis BVD
Dose: Initially give two doses 4wks apart to all breeding stock including bull, single booster then required annually.
Before beginning vaccination you should screen herd for PI animals and remove any found from herd.
Disease: A range of diseases, most progress rapidly to sudden death, rarely treatable. The most common of these include blackleg, blacks disease and tetanus. Infection can be through ingestion or cuts whilst on affected pasture.
Vaccine: Covexin 8/Bravoxin 10
Dose: Initially give two doses 6wks apart, under-skin, single booster then required annually.
Safe in pregnant cattle however it is always wise to avoid ANY unnecessary handling in the final few weeks of pregnancy.
Most commonly seen in youngstock but can affect any age group. Toxin from environment enters body from cut/wound eg castration/tailing/dehorning/blackthorn. Initially see animal become stary, often holding tail continually up, rapidly progresses to complete paralysis with limbs and neck held rigidly extended – death.
Calf with early signs of tetanus - Tail raised, staring blankly at wall, stiff posture.
Commonest in adult animals, bacteria ingested from affected pasture, goes through small ulcers in stomach to form toxin filled abscesses in liver. Liver fluke migrate through and burst these abscesses releasing toxin into bloodstream and activate disease.
In most cases will cause sudden death without any signs. Occasionally the animal may survive for 3-4 days, been seen lagging behind/dull and though not seen in all cases swelling around both eyes is strongly suggestive of blacks disease.
Disease: Highly infectious virus causing fever, blowing, runny eyes and pneumonia in calves and cattle of all ages. Infection is expensive to treat and reduces lifetime performance in beef and dairy animals, if left untreated can result in death.
Virus has been known to travel up to 15km on a windy day!
IBR Vaccination Protocol - Calves
|Type of Vaccine|
|1st shot:||At 8* weeks old given intranasal (up nose)||Live marker|
|2nd shot:||At 12 weeks old given intramuscular (in muscle)||Live marker|
|Pre-bulling:||1 shot intramuscular (in muscle)||Dead Inactivated|
|Pre-calving:||1 Month before calving, 1 shot intranasal (up nose)||Live marker|
|1st shot:||At 8* weeks old given intranasal (up nose)||Live marker|
|Pre-bulling:||2 shots 4-6weeks apart intramuscular (in muscle)||Dead Inactivated|
|Pre-calving:||1Month before calving,1 shot intranasal (up nose)||Live marker|
|*Begin at 8 weeks of age in healthy calves, if already challenged can give 1st shot up nose from 2 weeks of age, will still require another dose at 8 and 12 weeks to complete the cover.|
IBR Vaccination Protocol - Adult Stock
|If not vaccinated as calves give 2 shots 4-6 weeks apart in muscle||Dead inactivated|
|Then 6 monthly boosters in muscle||Dead inactivated|
INTRANASAL GIVES BEST RESULTS IN FACE OF OUTBREAK!
Always use the vaccine from the same manufacturer as there is variations within the IBR strains used by different manufacturers so consistency gives a better level of protection.
Disease: Highly infectious water loving bacterial disease affecting mostly dairy herds.
In adult cattle: sudden severe milk drop, the udder is soft and often called ‘flabby bag’, milk is thick yellow and blood tinged, abortions are common.
In calves: Sudden high fever (105-106ºF), off food, blowing, jaundice, anaemia and often death.
Dose: Initially give 2 doses 4wks apart, booster required annually.
Can be used from 8wks+ of age, safe to use in pregnancy. Can be given at same time as BVD vaccine.
Disease: Parasite ingested from pasture, breeds and migrates within lungs causing severe damage – results in coughing, pneumonia, poor performance and in severe cases death. Easily preventable!
Dose: Initially give 2 doses 4wks apart, single booster required second year only.
Can be used from 8wks+ of age, safe to use in pregnancy.
• Caused mainly by RSV, PI3, Pasteurella and IBR*
• Mostly see acute fever, dull, off food, blowing or coughing.
• Highly infectious especially in young stock and dairy herds, often seen soon after travel or after changes to housing/groups.
Vaccines: Bovipast RSP covers RSV, PI3 & Pasteurella
*Click IBR link for IBR vaccine details
• Initially can start from 2 wks of age.
• Give 2 doses of 5ml given subcutaneous (under-skin) 4 wks apart.
• Boosters maybe given 2wks prior to any future high risk period eg housing, moving, changing groups.
IBR/RSV/PI3/Pasteurella cannot be differentiated by clinical exam alone, the only way to identify which organism is causing disease in a group is by taking a wash of fluid from the airway for culture. This procedure is difficult and risky for the animal so not regularly performed.
RSV = Respiratory Syncitial Virus – a highly infectious respiratory virus seen in all ages the most common in growing cattle and is the second commonest cause of ‘blowing’ in young calves.
PI3 = Para influenza 3 – again a highly infectious respiratory virus, mostly in young calves, third commonest cause of ‘blowing’ gives very severe disease.
Pasteurella =A bacterial pneumonia which invades the upper respiratory tract then quickly spreads through the lungs. Often called ‘shipping fever’ it is the most common cause of severe pneumonia. Usually associated with a stressful event or result of infection by IBR/RSV/PI3
Disease: Calf scours in first 3wks of life.
• Ecoli causes most scours seen within first 5 days of life and often fatal!
• Rota/corona viruses give bad scours in 2nd/3rd week of life. Associated with calving indoors, not enough colostrum or poor colostrum quality.
• Breeding cows only!
• Initially 2 doses given 4-6wks apart AT LEAST 3 WEEKS PRIOR TO CALVING then yearly booster again at least 3 weeks pre calving.
REMEMBER – Vaccine gives newborn calf immunity through the colostrum, must ensure all calves get 3pints of colostrum within first 6 hours of life to be effective. Recommend milking out and bagging if possible to guarantee calf receives enough.
• Sudden onset severe watery scour that affects all ages of cattle; often animals have badly sunken eyes and dull/collapsed.
• Will cause DEATH if not treated quickly especially in younger animals.
• Major cause of abortion at any stage of pregnancy!
WILL SERIOUSLY AFFECT HUMANS, PLEASE OBSERVE GOOD HYGIENE PRACTICES WHEN DEALING WITH ANY SCOURING ANIMALS
DO NOT EXPOSE YOUNG CHILDREN, PREGNANT WOMEN, DIABETICS, IMMUNOCOMPROMISED OR ELDERLY PEOPLE TO THESE ANIMALS!
Vaccine: Bovivac S
Calves up to 6mts: 2ml under-skin; Adult cattle: 5ml under-skin
• Initial course of 2 doses given 3wks apart, (all animals from 3wks of age)
• Any pregnant cows that have not calved within 8wks of second shot should receive a third shot 3-4wks pre-calving (this gives newborn calf immunity through colostrum).
• Single booster shots should be given every 12mts OR 2wks prior to any high risk period